Visn. Nac. Akad. Nauk Ukr. 2018. (10):3-16

V.V. Stavnyuk
Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv


"Academy is eternal". As the school of Plato, it goes back to ancient civilization, the deciding feature of which was the freedom not of the subject, but of a citizen of the Greek polis and of the Roman civitas. And the history of the Academy is the history of the constant "appeal" of European society to the past epochs and to the past generations.
In the beginning the Hellenic and even purely Athenian phenomenon, the Academy eventually acquired the quality of the pan-Greek phenomenon, and in the eyes of the apologists of Christianity, in the eyes of the Fathers of the Church, in the eyes of the all mentally different society, academics associate with the pre-Christian and non-Christian world of Greek and Roman civilization - with its behavioral models, with its social, political and ideological (religious including) practices.
In polemics with this world the name of the Academy is kept and transmitted over the next centuries in worldview meanings, but also in the meanings of practical - educational, pedagogical. In Byzantium, the Academy is mentioned in lexicons and encyclopedias. In the Latin section of medieval civilization, the Academy is kept in the mention of it by Christian authors, but also by the authors of classical antiquity.
The Latin language, with its semantic content, created the illusion of a permanent and continuous historical process, uniting the Middle Ages and Greco-Roman civilization, and one of the symbols of continuing Antiquity was the Academy. The Academy is again reborn within both of "pre-classical" Renaissances - as the Carolingian and the Ottonian.
But its final return to the realities of post-ancient European civilization happened within the "classical" Renaissance.
It was then that the connection between generations and epochs resumed in perhaps the most complete form. The connection that will be constantly reproduced in humanist societies — the prototypes and forms of existence of the renaissance Academies; the connection that will be maintained in the already well-established Academies of the Early Modern and the Modern Times.
The academies filled out the world and became the institution in which mankind retains its unity in a constant appeal to past generations, to the past epochs
Shelter arts and sciences, foundation for based on the scientific principles education - the Academy today is the guardian of goodness, truth and humanistic conquest of the human spirit. So be it in the twenty first century.

Keywords: Academy, School of Athens, Ancient Civilization, Renaissance, Plato, Christianity, NAS of Ukraine.

Language of article: ukrainian



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