Visn. Nac. Akad. Nauk Ukr. 2020.(9): 41-65
https://doi.org/10.15407/visn2020.09.041

Stepan M. Stoyko
Institute of Ecology of the Carpathians of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, Ukraine

BIOSPHERE AS GLOBAL ECOSYSTEM AND INFLUENCE OF TECHNOSPHERE ON ITS BALANCE

The scientific determination of biosphere as auto-organized, auto-regulated and auto-renewable system with an analysis of its functioning in the modern conditions of technogenous impact is given in the paper. The functional unity of biosphere with its components, such as lithosphere, hydrosphere, pedisphere, atmosphere, organic world is demonstrated. The parameters of biospheric shell are established from 11 km deep in the Pacific to 10 km above the planet surface. Such irreversible ecological changes in the biosphere as climate change, destruction of ozone layer, loss of biotic, ecosystem and landscape diversity are determined as well as its ecological aftermaths. The biospheric soil-protective, economical, ecological, social significance of the forest formations is found out with the need to increase afforestation in Ukraine at the expense of formerly devastated forest lands and degraded shrublands. On the base of an analysis of scientific and technical progress at the 20th century, the conclusion is made that within historical evolution of global socium, after long time of Iron Age, a new technogenous age has come. As a result, such qualitative novel phenomenon as technosphere rose up within biosphere. Taking this into account, the tasks of nature conservation science are substantiated, the most urgent of which is to optimize interrelations between biosphere, technosphere and sociosphere.
Keywords: biosphere, technosphere, technogen age, biodiversity, anthropogen.

Language of article: ukrainian

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