Visn. Nac. Akad. Nauk Ukr. 2016. (4): 65-75

A.V. Mokienko
Ukrainian Research Institute for Medicine of Transport of Ministry of Public Health of Ukraine, Odessa


The problem of propagation of cyanobacteria in waters associated with global eutrophication, and the status of its research in the world is described. In Ukraine today the problem of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in reservoirs, particularly in hygiene and health and environmental aspects, is poorly understood. The necessity of monitoring the content of cyanobacteria in the reservoirs; the introduction of standardized methods for determining cyanotoxins during bloom; study the cyanotoxins effect on biota; development of risk models for health recreational and drinking water after disinfection of surface water intakes supplying drinking water is substantiated.
Keywords: cyanobacteria, cyanotoxins, bloom in surface water bodies, recreational water, disinfection of drinking water.


Language of article: ukrainian




  1. Mokiyenko A.V., Gozhenko A.I., Petrenko N.F., Ponomarenko A.N. Water and water-mediated infections. Vol. 1. (Odessa: Leradruk, 2008). [in Russian].
  2. Mokiyenko A.V., Petrenko N.F. Water & Water Purification Technologies. 2008. 3(27): 22. [in Russian].
  3. Guidelines for drinking water quality. Vol. 1. Recommendations. (Geneva, World Health Organisation, 2011).
  4. El-Shehawy R., Gorokhova E., Fernández-Piñas F., del Campo F.F. Global warming and hepatotoxin production by cyanobacteria: What can we learn from experiments? Water Res. 2012. 46(5): 1420.
  5. Graham J.L., Loftin K.A., Kamman N. Monitoring recreational freshwaters. Lakeline. 2009. 29: 18.
  6. Stewart I, Webb P.M., Schluter P.J., Shaw G.R. Recreational and occupational field exposure to freshwater cyanobacteria – a review of anecdotal and case reports, epidemiological studies and the challenges for epidemiologic assessment. Environ. Health. 2006. 5(1): 143.
  7. Hilborn E.D., Roberts V.A., Backer L., DeConno E., Egan J.S., Hyde J.B., Nicholas D.C., Wiegert E.J., Billing L.M., DiOrio M., Mohr M.C., Hardy F.J., Wade T.J., Yoder J.S., Hlavsa M.C. Algal Bloom-Associated Disease Outbreaks Among Users of Freshwater Lakes – United States, 2009–2010. MMWR. 2014. 63(1): 11.
  8. Backer  L.C., Landsberg J.H., Miller M., Keel K., Taylor T.K. Canine Cyanotoxin Poisonings in the United States (1920s–2012): Review of Suspected and Confirmed Cases from Three Data Sources. Toxins. 2013. 5(9): 1597.
  9. Codd G.A., Morrison L.F., Metcalf J.S. Cyanobacterial toxins: risk management for health protection. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2005. 203(3): 264.
  10. Bruno M. Le alghe tossiche marine e dacqua dolce: impatto sanitario e strategie di controllo. Rapporti ISTISAN 00/31. (Rome: Istituto Superiore di Sanita, 2000).
  11. Fitzgeorge R.B., Clark S.A., Keevil C.W. Routes of intoxication. In: Codd G.A., Jefferies T.M., Keevil C.W., Potter E. (Eds.). Detection Methods for Cyanobacterial Toxins. (Cambridge, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 1994). P. 69.
  12. Lévesque B., Gervais M.C., Chevalier P., Gauvin D., Anassour-Laouan-Sidi E., Gingras S., Fortin N., Brisson G., Greer C., Bird D. Prospective study of acute health effects in relation to exposure to cyanobacteria. Sci. Total Environ. 2014. 466–467: 397.
  13. Fonseca A.L., Da Silva J., Nunes E.A., Azevedo S.M., Soares R.M. In vivo genotoxicity of treated water containing the cylindrospermopsin-producer Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii. J. Water Health. 2014. 12(3): 474.
  14. Kovalchuk L.J., Mokienko A.V. Modern environmental and health conditions of water objects of Ukrainian Danube region. Actual problems of transport medicine. 2014. 3(37): 171. [in Ukrainian].
  15. Kovalchuk L.J., Mokiyenko A.V. Hygienic estimation of aqueous objects state in places of water use by population of Ukrainian Danube region. Medical perspectives (Medychni perspektyvy). 2015. 20(1): 132. [in Ukrainian].
  16. Kovalchuk L.I., Mokienko A.V. Hygienic assessment of eutrophication of surface water basins of Ukrainian Danube region. Actual Problems of the Modern Medicine. 2014. 4(48): 73. [in Ukrainian].
  17. Kovalchuk L.I., Mokiyenko A.V., Nesterova D.A. Achievements in biology and medicine (Dosyagnennya biologii i medytsyny). 2014. (2): 10. [in Russian].
  18. Abosede A.T., Ikegwu N.D. Cyanobacteria of a Tropical Lagoon, Nigeria. Nature and Science. 2010. 8(7): 77.
  19. Madkour F.F., Gaballah M.M. Phytoplankton assemblage of a solar saltern in Port Fouad, Egypt. Oceanologia. 2012. 54(4): 687.
  20. Vinogradova O.M. Cyanoprocaryota in hypersaline environments and their adaptational strategies. Ukrainian Phytosociological Collection. 2006. 24(C): 34. [in Ukrainian].
  21. Zarei-Darki B. Cyanoprokaryota from different water bodies of Iran. Algologia. 2010. 20(4): 482. [in Russian].
  22. Samylina O.S., Gerasimenko L.M., Shadrin N.V. Comparative characteristic of the phototroph communities from the mineral lakes of Crimea (Ukraine) and Altai region (Russia). Algologia. 2010. 20(2): 192. [in Russian].
  23. Terenko L.M. Plankton Microalgae of the Tiligulsky Estuary. Ecological safety of coastal and shelf zones and comprehensive use of shelf resources. 2005. 12: 622. [in Russian].
  24. Burkova T.N. Taxonomic composition of the plankton algae Chapaevka river. Samara Luka: problems of regional and global ecology(Samarskaya Luka: problemy regionalnoy i globalnoy ekologii). 2010. 19(2): 26. [in Russian].
  25. Beljakova R.N. Bloom forming Cyanoprokaryota from water bodies of Northwestern Russia. Novosti Sist. Nizsh. Rast. 2005. 39: 254. [in Russian].
  26. Lopes V.R., Vasconcelos V.M. Bioactivity of Benthic and Picoplanktonic Estuarine Cyanobacteria on Growth of Photoautotrophs: Inhibition versus Stimulation. Mar. Drugs. 2011. 9(5): 790.
  27. van Apeldoorn M.E., van Egmond H.P., Speijers G.J.A., Bakker G.J.I. Toxins of cyanobacteria. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2007. 51: 7.
  28. Codd G.A. Cyanobacterial toxins: Occurrence, properties and biological significance. Water Sci. Technol. 1995. 32(4): 149.
  29. Codd G.A. Cyanobacterial toxins, the perception of water quality, and the prioritisation of eutrophication control. Ecol. Eng. 2000. 16(1): 51.
  30. Skulberg O.M. Cyanobacteria/cyanotoxin research – Looking back for the future: The opening lecture of the 6th ICTC, Bergen, Norway. Environ. Toxicol. 2005. 20(3): 220.
  31. Kovalchuk L.I., Mokienko A.V., Hushcha C.H. Influence of the waters from the lakes of Ukrainian Danube region on the functional state of some organism’s systems of healthy rats. Hygiene of populated areas (Hihiyena naselenykh mists). 2014. (63): 78. [in Ukrainian].
  32. Kovalchuck L.I., Mokiyenko A.V., Nasibullin B.A., Guzha S.G., Oleshko A.Ya.Comprehensive Assessment of Functional Changes in Healthy Rats That Consumed as Drinking Water that of Lake Jalpug. Journal of problems of biology and medicine (Visnyk problem biologii i medytsyny). 2015. 2(3): 89. [in Ukrainian].
  33. Kovalchuk L.I., Mokienko A.V., Nasibullin B.A., Solodova L.B., Oleshko A.Ya., Bakholdina Ye.I. Comprehensive assessment of functional changes in healthy rats which took drinking water from Kahul lake. Actual Problems of the Modern Medicine. 2015. 15(1): 172. [in Ukrainian].
  34. Kovalchuck L.I., Mokiyenko A.V., Nasibullin B.A., Solodova L.B., Guzha S.G., Oleshko A.Ya., Baholdina E.I. Comprehensive assessment of functional changes in healthy rats that consumed as drinking water of Katlabukh lake. Achievements of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. 2015. (1): 73. [in Ukrainian].
  35. Kovalchuck L.I., Mokiyenko A.V., Nasibullin B.A. Hygienic evaluation of structural changes in healthy rats that consumed for drinking the water of Kahul lake. Clinical & experimental pathology (Klinichna ta eksperimentalna patologiya). 2015. (2): 103. [in Ukrainian].
  36. Kovalchuk L.I., Mokiyenko A.V., Nasibullin B.A., Oleshko A.Ya., Bakholdina E.I. Comprehensive assessment of structural and functional changes in healthy rats that consumed drinking water from lake Yalpuh. Bulletin of scientific research. 2015. (2): 118. [in Ukrainian].
  37. Kovalchuk L.I., Mokiyenko A.V., Nasibullin B.A. Hygienic assessment of structural changes in healthy rats that consumed drinking water from lake Katlabukh. Actual problems of transport medicine (Aktualnye problemy transportnoj mediciny). 2015. 3(41): 141. [in Ukrainian].
  38. Kovalchuk L.I., Korobchansky V.A., Mokienko A.V. Comprehensive assessment of Ukrainian Danube region surface impoundment water influence on biota of different levels of organization. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015. 5(6): 462. [in Ukrainian].
  39. Kovalchuk L.I., Mokiyenko A.V., Nasibullin B.A., Solodova L.B., Guscha S.G., Oleshko O.Ya., Bakholdina O.I. Complex estimation of functional changes in the organism of healthy rats which consumed water of the lake Kagul as drinking water. Medical perspectives (Medychni perspektyvy). 2015. 20(2): 124. [in Ukrainian].
  40. Коvalchuck L.I., Моkiyenko А.V., Nasibullin B.A., Solodova L.B., Oleshko A.Ya., Baholdina E.I. Comprehensive assessment of structural and functional changes in healthy rats that consumed as drinking water that of lake Katlabuh. Biomedical and Biosocial Anthropology. 2015. 1(24): 22. [in Ukrainian].
  41. Kovalchuk L.I., Mokiyenko A.V., Nasibullin B.A., Solodova L.B., Oleshko O.Ya., Bakhodina E.I. Hygienic estimation of structural changes in healthy rats that consumed as drinking water of lake Yalpug. Yale Journal of Science and Education. 2015. 1(16): 539. [in Ukrainian].
  42. Tonietto A.E., Lombardi A.T., Vieira A.A., Parrish C.C., Choueri R.B. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Cyanobacteria) exudates: Chemical characterization and complexation capacity for Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb. Water Res. 2014. 49: 381
  43. Shafran L.M., Mokienko А.V., Petrenko N.F., Gozhenko А.І., Nasibulin B.A. To the substantiation of hormesis as fundamental biomedical paradigm (review of literature data and results of own researches). Modern Problems of Toxicology. 2010. 2–3: 13. [in Russian].
  44. Nasibullin B.A., Petrenko N.F., Mokienko A.V., Gozhenko A.I. Morphological features of organs of digestion and reproductions at long influence of chlorine dioxide and its derivatives (chlorites and chlorates). Reports of morphology. 2008. 1(14): 219. [in Russian].
  45. Kovalchuk L.I., Mokienko A.V., Diatlov S.E., Koshelev A.V. Ecologic-Hygienic Evaluation of Aquatic Acute Toxicity of Surface Impoundment of Ukrainian Danube Region by the Results of Biotesting. Journal of problems of biology and medicine (Visnyk problem biologii i medytsyny). 2015. 2(4): 69. [in Ukrainian].
  46. Kovalchuk L.I., Mokienko A.V. Diatlov S.E., Koshelev A.V. Ecologic and Hygienic Evaluation of Aquatic Chronic Toxicity of Surface Impoundment of Ukrainian Danube Region by the Results of Biotesting. Journal of problems of biology and medicine (Visnyk problem biologii i medytsyny). 2015. 3(1): 70. [in Ukrainian].
  47. Kоvalchuck L.I., Mоkiyenko A.V., Vasiliyeva T.Yu. Characteristics of the surface water basins of the Ukrainian Danube region toxicity with the use of microbial test-system Salmonella typhimurium TA 98. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015. 5(4): 366. [in Ukrainian].
  48. Kovalchuk L.I., Моkiyenko A.V., Vasiliyeva T.Yu. Characterictics of Ukrainian Danube area surface water source mutagenicity with the use of microbial test-system Salmonella typhimurium TA 98. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015. 5(2): 311. [in Ukrainian].
  49. Petrenko N.F. Scientific substantiation of combined methods of disinfection of drinking water. (Doctor of Science thesis). (Kyiv, 2012). [in Ukrainian].