Visn. Nac. Akad. Nauk Ukr. 2018. (3): 19-32


R.S. Stoika
Institute of Cell Biology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine Lviv

According to the materials of scientific report at the meeting of the Presidium of NAS of Ukraine, January 31, 2018

The most important results of the long-term experimental investigations conducted by scientists of the Institute of Cell Biology of NAS of Ukraine in collaboration with other institutions of the Academy and universities and addressed on the development and characteristics of the nanoscale carriers for efficient delivery of nucleic acids into cells of living organisms are presented in the review. Advantages and drawbacks of the viral (biological) and non-viral (chemical and physical) methods of gene delivery have been described. The first native non-viral gene delivery systems based on the comb-like and linear co-polymers with the polyampholytic properties have been synthesized at Lviv National Polytechnic University. Their ability to deliver genetic materials into cells of organisms of various taxonomic types (bacteria, yeast, and mammalian) was demonstrated at the Institute of Cell Biology of NAS of Ukraine. In collaboration with scientists of the Institute of Food Biotechnology and Genomics of NAS of Ukraine, first native polymeric nanocarriers for gene delivery into plant cells were also developed. The physico-chemical characteristics and biological effects of these gene delivery systems were compared with those of the polyethylenimine that is a widely used polymeric carrier of the nucleic acids. The biocompatibility of the developed systems, as well as the lack of their mutagenic activity, were demonstrated. Due to availability of specific chemical groups in the synthesized polymeric nanocarriers, it is possible to perform an addressed delivery of different biomolecules, particularly the DNA, that is impossible when using the traditional liposomal carriers of DNA. This can provide the carriers with ability to conduct addressed delivery of the biologically active molecules to target tissues with a simultaneous decreasing of their general toxicity and prolonging their therapeutic action in the treated organism. Thus, the availability of native nanocarriers of genetic materials that can be bought in the country should enhance gene engineering and gene therapy investigations in Ukraine.
Keywords: delivery of nucleic acids to cells, nanocarriers, multifunctional polymers.

Language of article: ukrainian


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