Visn. Nac. Akad. Nauk Ukr. 2017. (11): 9-29

A.B. Klimchouk
Institute of Geological Sciences of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv

According to the materials of scientific report at the meeting of the Presidium of NAS of Ukraine, September 27, 2017

The development of karst (the formation of macro-porosity and abnormally high permeability of rocks under the action of dissolution by groundwater) affects different areas of human activity. Karstification has traditionally been associated with the impact of the infiltration of meteoric waters on easily soluble rocks that are exposed to the surface or lie at shallow depth. Karst features documented at great depths were regarded as paleokarst, formed in the previous epoch of the exposure and then buried beneath younger sediments.

The theory of hypogene (deep) karstification reveals the regularities of development and distribution of karst, which is associated with the ascending discharges of confined groundwater and endogenous fluids. Developing along structural and lithological heterogeneities in a wide range of reactive rocks, hypogene karstification creates a system of channels of effective fluid migration and macro-porosity in the upper crust, both in continental and oceanic conditions, and plays an important role in the organization of ascending fluid flow, processes of mass transfer and the formation of many deposits of fluid-induced ores and hydrocarbons.

The development of the theory of hypogene karstification, the revealing of its global distribution and the demonstration of its fundamental significance have caused a shift in the general paradigm of karst research and a revision of the notions about the nature of this phenomenon in many regions of the world. The hypogene karst theory has formed a new basis for assessing the role of karst in the exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbon deposits (including non-conventional hydocarbons) and fluid-induced ores, the geological sequestration of radioactive and toxic wastes and CO2, solving geological engineering problems of karst regions, exploration and use of geothermal resources and resources of deep groundwater.
Keywords: karst, hypogene karst, karst hydrogeology, karst geomorphology, karst hazards, hydrocarbon karst reservoirs, karst ore deposits.

Language of article: ukrainian



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